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This material has been compiled by RBC Capital Markets (a business brand name under which Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) and its subsidiaries trade) from sources believed to be reliable, but no representation or warranty, express or implied, is made by Royal Bank of Canada, RBC Capital Markets, its affiliates or any other person as to its accuracy, completeness or correctness. Nothing in this material constitutes legal, accounting or tax advice or individually tailored investment advice. This material is prepared for general circulation to clients and prospective clients and has been prepared without regard to the individual financial circumstances and objectives of persons who receive it. Neither the information provided nor any opinion expressed constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities or to take any deposits or provide any financing. Past performance is not a guide to future performance, future returns are not guaranteed, and a loss of original capital may occur. Every province in Canada, every state in the U.S., and most countries throughout the world have their own laws regulating the types of securities and other investment products which may be offered to their residents, as well as the process for doing so. As a result, the products and services discussed in this material may not be eligible for sale or otherwise in some jurisdictions. This material is not, and under no circumstances should be construed as, a solicitation to act as securities broker or dealer or otherwise in any jurisdiction by any person or company that is not legally permitted to carry on the business of a securities broker or dealer or otherwise in that jurisdiction. To the full extent permitted by law neither RBC Capital Markets nor any of its affiliates, nor any other person, accepts any liability whatsoever for any direct or consequential loss arising from any use of this material or the information contained herein. No matter contained in this document may be reproduced or copied by any means without the prior consent of RBC Capital Markets.

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